Last week I visited a few places in the US. My first stop was Morgantown, West Virginia where my host was Casian Pantea. There I had a lot of discussions with Casian and Carsten Conradi on chemical reaction network theory. This synergized well with the work I have recently been doing preparing a lecture course on that subject which I will be giving in the next semester. I gave a talk on MAPK and got some feedback on that. It rained a lot and there was not much opportunity to do anything except work. One day on the way to dinner while it was relatively dry I saw a Cardinal and I fortunately did have my binoculars with me. On Wednesday afternoon I travelled to New Brunswick and spent most of Thursday talking to Eduardo Sontag at Rutgers. It was a great pleasure to talk to an excellent mathematician who also knows a lot about immunology. He and I have a lot of common interests which is in part due to the fact that I was inspired by several of his papers during the time I was getting into mathematical biology. I also had the opportunity to meet Evgeni Nikolaev who told me a variety of interesting things. They concerned bifurcation theory in general, its applications to the kinds of biological models I am interested in and his successes in applying mathematical models to understanding concrete problems in biomedical research such as the processes taking place in tuberculosis. My personal dream is to see a real coming together of mathematics and immunology and that I have the chance to make a contribution to that process.

On Friday I flew to Chicago in order to attend an AMS sectional meeting. I had been in Chicago once before but that is many years ago now. I do remember being impressed by how much Lake Michigan looks like the sea, I suppose due to the structure of the waves. This impression was even stronger this time since there were strong winds whipping up the waves. Loyola University, the site of the meeting, is right beside the lake and it felt like home for me due to the combination of wind, waves and gulls. The majority of those were Ring-Billed Gulls which made it clear which side of the Atlantic I was on. There were also some Herring Gulls and although they might have been split from those on the other side of the Atlantic by the taxonomists I did not notice any difference. It was the first time I had been at an AMS sectional meeting and my impression was that the parallel sessions were very parallel, in other words in no danger of meeting. Most of the people in our session were people I knew from the conferences I attended in Charlotte and in Copenhagen although I did make a couple of new acquaintances, improving my coverage of the reaction network community.

In a previous post I mentioned Gheorghe Craciun’s ideas about giving the deficiency of a reaction network a geometric interpretation, following a talk of his in Copenhagen. Although I asked him questions about this on that occasion I did not completely understand the idea. Correspondingly my discussion of the point here in my blog was quite incomplete. Now I talked to him again and I believe I have finally got the point. Consider first a network with a single linkage class. The complexes of the network define points in the species space whose coordinates are the stoichiometric coefficients. The reactions define oriented segments joining the educt complex to the product complex of each reaction. The stoichiometric subspace is the vector space spanned by the differences of the complexes. It can also be considered as a translate of the affine subspace spanned by the complexes themselves. This makes it clear that its dimension is at most , where is the number of complexes. The number is the rank of the stoichiometric matrix. The deficiency is . At the same time . If there are several linkage classes then the whole space has dimension at most , where is the number of linkage classes. The deficiency is . If the spaces corresponding to the individual linkage classes have the maximal dimension allowed by the number of complexes in that class and these spaces are linearly independent then the deficiency is zero. Thus we see that the deficiency is the extent to which the complexes fail to be in general position. If the species and the number of complexes have been fixed then deficiency zero is seen to be a generic condition. On the other hand fixing the species and adding more complexes will destroy the deficiency zero condition since then we are in the case so that the possibility of general position is excluded. The advantage of having this geometric picture is that it can often be used to read off the deficiency directly from the network. It might also be used to aid in constructing networks with a desired deficiency.