The music did seem to have a positive effect on the synchronization of lectures. Unfortunately it was not always there – for instance it was not there before my talk – and it seems to have been getting less and less. One good thing is that the name tags, as well as showing the usual information have the first name (or nickname) printed in large letters at the top. I find that this can be very useful for recognizing people after only having met them fleetingly.
The plenary talk of Claire Tomlin yesterday was about the HER2 receptor which plays an important role in breast cancer. It is connected to transcription factors in the nucleus by a signalling network containing two main pathways. One of these includes the MAP kinase cascade while another passes through the substance Akt. Excessive activity of this type of signalling can be reduced by a drug called lapatinib, which is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. There is, however, a problem that this beneficial effect can be neutralized after some time. The speaker described ideas for overcoming this effect based on a study of the signalling network. A result of this analysis is that, counterintuitively, combining the administration of lapatinib with another treatment which increases the concentration of Akt at a different time could lead to a more effective therapy. I did not get the details but this seems like a case where mathematical modelling could actually contribute effectively to cancer treatment by suggesting new strategies. Relations were mentioned to the pattern of hairs on the wings of Drosophila. In her research on biomedical themes she benefits from her background in control engineering and aerodynamics.
The talk of Becca Asquith which I mentioned in the last post was cancelled. Instead there was a lecture by Sandy Anderson who seems to like to cultivate the image of the hard-drinking Scotsman. He started his career in mathematical modelling and then moved a long way towards medical research, now heading a lab at the Moffit Cancer Center in Florida. The subject of his talk was the role of heterogeneity in cancer. He started by giving a view of the importance of cancer (in terms of the number of people it kills) and the trends in the numbers for the different forms. They have mostly been decreasing for many years with the notable exception of lung cancer (for well-known reasons) but the rate of decrease is not very large despite the huge amount of effort, and money, put into cancer research. He said that death in cancer usually does not result from a tumour which stays in its original site but as a result of metastasis. Thus that is the key phenomenon to be understood. This requires an understanding of many different scales and for the talk he concentrated on the cellular scale. He claimed that an important fact that cancer researchers had not taken into account sufficiently until very recently is how heterogeneous tumours are. There is a large variation in the phenotype of the individual cancer cells and the phenotypes are evolving. This evolution is strongly influenced by the environment of the tumour, for instance the structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Experiments done on cell cultures may give misleading results since the ‘happy’ cells in the Petri dish with all modern comforts are not under the same pressure as corresponding cells in the body. The more the external pressures are the more the dangerous cells which are going to metastasize dominate over the others. In some cases treatment can accelerate the growth of a tumour. This danger exists if the treatment is given too late. These ideas have arisen by the use of mathematical modelling. These are ‘hybrid models’ which combine discrete and continuous dynamical systems and this is a terms which I have met in several other talks at this conference. One of the conclusions of this research is that it may be a good idea to control cancer cells rather to destroy them. For the attempt to destroy cells may destroy the relatively harmless ones and unleash the dangerous one on their surroundings. Anderson’s talk conveyed the excitement of the application of mathematical modelling in cancer research at this moment and I wonder if some of the young people in the audience might have been recruited.
This afternoon I went to a session on wound healing. There was an introductory lecture by Rebecca Segal and this was helpful for me since I knew very little about the subject. Two of the things I found interesting – I was already primed for this by talking to Angela Reynolds at her poster yesterday – is that immunology (dynamics of neutrophils and macrophages) plays a big role and that ODE models can be useful. Useful means that they can help doctors make decisions how to treat wounds they are confronted with in practise.